Biotin

Biotin, which is also called as coenzyme R or vitamin H, B-vitamin dissolves in water. It consisted tetrahydrothiophene ring combined with an ureido (tetrahydroimidizalone) ring. A valeric acid substituent is combined with one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring. The only human health situation which there is need for biotin as a treatment is biotin deficiency.

About Biotin

Biotin

General overview

Biotin is essential for the manufacturing of fatty acids, amino acids, the metabolism of fats and growth of the cell, Biotin helps in different metabolic reactions that involve the transportation of carbon dioxide. It is also useful for keeping blood sugar level steady. Biotin is often advised as a dietary supplement for improving the strength of nails and hair, though scientific info supporting this use isn’t strong. However, biotin is seen in many health and cosmetics products for the hair and skin. Biotin deficiency isn’t that common because, in many cases, intestinal bacteria make biotin in greater quantity than body’s daily requirements. For this basis, statutory agencies in large number of countries, example the Australia and US, do not advise a recommended day to day consumption of biotin. However, many cases of metabolic disorders exist in which a person’s metabolism of biotin isn’t normal, such as deficiency in the holocarboxylase synthetase enzyme which links biotin onto the carboxylase, this is where the biotin behaves as a cofactor.

Biosynthesis

Biotin has a structure that is very unusual, with two rings connected together via one of their sides. The two rings are thiophenemoieties and ureido . It is constructed from two precursors, pimeloyl-CoA and alanine and via three enzymes.

Cofactor biochemistry

Biotin is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acid, branched-chain gluconeogenesis  and amino acid catabolism. In the bacteria, biotin is connected to biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) by biotin protein ligase. The connections of biotin to different chemical sites, biotinylation, is used as an necessary laboratory technique to understand different processes, including replication, DNA transcription, protein interactions, and protein localization. Biotinidase as it is able to biotinylate histone proteins, but only less biotin is seen naturally connected to chromatin.

Biotin attaches itself very tightly to the tetrameric protein avidin ( also neutravidin and streptavidin ). It is one of the hardest known protein-ligand interactions. This is generally used in various biotechnological applications. Before 2005, very difficult conditions were thought to be necessary to smash the biotin-streptavidin bond.

Supplies of biotin

Biotin is found in a wide variety of rich food sources, but only some are predominantly rich sources. Foods with high biotin content include leafy green vegetables, raw egg yolk Saskatoon berries, liver, and Swiss chard. The biotin intake via food in Western populations has been said to be from 35 to 70 μg/d . Biotin is also exists in supplement form and can be seen in many of the pharmacies.

Bioavailability

Biotin is also known as vitamin H (the H represents Haut und Haar , German words for “skin and hair”) or vitamin B7. Studies on its bioavailability have been done on chicks and rats.